Merging boundaries. Phoenician communities in the western Mediterranean and the Atlantic: cultural consumption and adaptation strategies circa 750-550 BC

This three-year NWO Veni project examined the way in which consumption of cross-cultural commodities by Near Eastern communities settled in the western Mediterranean and the Atlantic was used to communicate and define a sense of identity in multi-cultural settings, where adaptation to a new physical and social environment was pivotal.

Evidence from domestic and burial contexts, as well as epigraphic data from both indigenous sites and those deemed 'Phoenician' are used to document inter and intra-site variation for each of the different types of evidence collected; the emerging patterns are then interpreted with the use of theory on consumption practices and identity formation.

Project details

NWO Veni project (2010-2013)

Dr. Eleftheria Pappa


  • Pappa, E. (2014). Who’s the Phoenician on the Atlantic? Disentangling seafaring from colonisation in western Iberia and Morocco. In R. Pedersen (Ed.), On Sea and Ocean: New Research in Phoenician Seafaring, 23-25 June 2011, Archäologisches Seminar. Marbourg.
  • Pappa, E. (2013). Post-colonial baggage at the end of the road: how to put the genie back into its bottle and where to go from there. Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 2013(28), 29-51.
  • Pappa, E. (2013). Looking out to the sea and away from it: multi-cultural maritime communities of the coast and isolationism in Iron Age I Atlantic Iberia. In Ancient maritime communities and the relationship between people and environment along the European Atlantic coasts/ Anciens peuplements littoraux et relations home/milieu sur les côtes de l'Europe atlantique. Oxford: Archaeopress.
  • Pappa, E. (2013). Documenting socio-cultural change and demographic evolution through the built environment in Phoenician-period Iberia, ca. 900-600 BC. In A. di Castro (Ed.), Housing and Habitat in the Mediterranean World: responses to different environments. International Conference organised by the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History, Monash University and the Soprintendenza Archeologica per la Toscana. Monash Prato Centre, 29 June - 1 July. Melbourne.
  • Pappa, E. (2012). Boekbespreking [Bespreking van het boek Ancient Phoenicia: an Introduction]. Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
  • Pappa, E. (2012). Retracting the divisions? Fresh perspectives on Phoenician settlement in Iberia from Tavira, Portugal. TMA. Tijdschrift voor mediterrane archeologie, 47, 7-13.
  • Pappa, E. (2011). From sea-faring men to travelling images: The Phoenician commercial expansion in south-eastern Spain as a stimulus for artistic interactions in Iberia. In K Duistermaat & I Regulski (Eds.), Intercultural Contacts in the Ancient Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Conference of the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo, 25th to 29th October 2008 (pp. 161-178). Leuven: Peeters.
  • Pappa, E. (2010). Reflections on the earliest Phoenician presence in north-west Africa. Talanta, XL-XLI, 53-72.